29 1月

Who invented making wine in oak barrels? History of wine development

The aroma of wine comes not only from the fruit itself, but also from natural customs, and oak barrels are also one of the heroes. The smells of vanilla, smoked wood, coffee and chocolate in the glass are all born of oak barrels! However, have you ever wondered who and how long ago it was that oak barrel brewing was a good choice?

Herodotus mentioned in the first volume of his monumental masterpiece History that Armenian wine merchants sailed along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the 5th century BC and could transport nearly 25 metric tons of wine to Babylon. Many wines have been quoted in Herodotus’ books in history. Wine is transported in barrels made of palm wood, which is the first time in history that wine is transported in barrels.

However, McGovern, an archaeologist who identified the oldest remains of artificially fermented wine, believes that Herodotus’ words have been misinterpreted. If Armenian businessmen really use palm barrels, McGovern wrote, they can only make barrels in Transcaucasia, but there are no dates. In other words, Armenians lack the wood needed to make wooden barrels. In Herodotus’ book, the Greek word for wine containers is bikos phoinikeiou. According to McGovern, phoinikeiou may mean Phoenician, so the book refers to a Phoenician jar used at that time.

So, who found that wooden barrels can bring excellent flavor to aging? Today, I can taste the unique flavor of beer, wine and brown spirits (whisky, some rum, aged agave, etc.). ) aged in wooden barrels under the guidance of oak. Liquor aged in wooden barrels has complex flavor and is thought-provoking, which allows sommeliers to judge and classify. If what McGovern said is true, it seems that no one knows when humans began to ripen in barrels.

It is possible to say that this is due to the ancient Romans. In ancient Rome, the cultural heritage of wine was profound, which led to the custom of sommeliers (then known as haustores, ancient Roman sommeliers). Wine means wine in Latin, and it is divided into many categories or grades, including sweet (ducle), soft (molle), soft (album) and deep red (sanguineum). At that time, there was a noble wine, Farr vintage wine, which had to be drunk in Chenfang for at least one year, and the older it became, the more precious it became. Twenty or thirty years later, the color of wine is almost amber; In Satiricon, an ancient Roman literary work, Patronius (about 27-66 BC), an author from the family of arbitrators, described such a feast: first, he enjoyed sweet wine with honey, and then he offered Ferranas for a hundred years in the year of Opimian (121 BC). Therefore, even if wooden containers are not used, the chemical changes of wine will continue over time. There is evidence that in ancient Rome, people mainly used binaural pottery pots to bring Chen Fang wine. They will seal the jar and heat it-an ancient sterilization method that can eliminate the microorganisms that cause food spoilage and avoid affecting the taste.

From the public granaries (horrea) excavated by archaeologists in ancient Rome and Ostia, it can be seen that in order to store a large amount of wine, the ancient Romans once built special warehouses like dry food. But most of the time, the ancient Romans used a kind of pottery jar called dolium to hold wine (bigger and rounder than the binaural pottery jar), and buried it deep underground, only exposing the neck, which was not only safe, but also tended to be kept at constant temperature.

However, the ancient Romans still used wooden barrels, and they may also be used to hold wine. Some historians claim that the barrel-making process was completed by Gauls or Celts; McGovern thinks that they may have passed the barrel-making method to Minos in Crete in the Bronze Age. As mentioned earlier, McGovern detected resin in ancient wine stains unearthed in Turkey (it was probably used for preservation at that time, which also confirmed that the precious gifts brought by the Magi contained resin, frankincense and myrrh); In addition, one of his colleagues also detected a chemical called lactone. He said that this ingredient belongs to B- methyl -g- octanolide, which is usually a derivative of oak and resin. In the wine industry, the official name is whiskey lactone, which is a compound produced when wine is aged in wooden barrels, which makes red wine, scotch whisky and cognac smell of coconut milk and taste rich and full. If wood is baked, its consistency will increase-so must the barrel maker when making barrels.

So, how did Minoan people add oak flavor to wine? Soak oak chips in wine? Or just mature in barrels? Although no barrel was ever found in the ruins of Minos, McGovern pointed out that Minos knew how to build ships. If they can bend the wood into an arc hull so that water can’t penetrate, naturally they can also bend the wood into an arc bucket to hold the liquid.

Lactone can be said to be only the first substance that appears after wine enters the barrel. The chemical changes in the barrel never stop, dancing with wood, air and years-dance music is long and complicated, and it contains as much profound knowledge as fermentation and distillation.

Oak barrels and spirits

Distilled liquor didn’t really catch on in Europe until the 13th century. Irish monks who were the first to make wine at that time may have stored it in wooden barrels-their wine was soaked in wooden environment until it was sold. Many historical materials about bourbon alleged that American whisky had matured in the late 1780s, and proved that the words “Old Bourbon Whiskey” were printed on the wooden barrels filled with wine at that time. People appreciate its taste and think it must be caused by long-term aging in wooden barrels. In fact, Old Bourbon refers to the rural areas of Kentucky, which originated in Kentucky, or it may refer to the streets that became rich in New Orleans and then became popular all over the country (historians have different opinions). In any case, it has nothing to do with whether it passes through Chen Fang in the production process. In short, the early spirits may be sold as green wines. According to Charles Cowdery, who studies the history of bourbon, normal aging in oak barrels did not appear until several decades after bourbon was invented.

Brandy produced in Konnek, France usually has to be aged in barrels for one or two years. In the wave of French worship in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Americans often regarded it as a symbol of quality. Cowdray’s research report pointed out that in 1793, whiskey advertised as aged appeared in the United States, and in 1814, a few wineries announced the number of aged wines. However, most whiskies are still ordinary, and the alcohol concentration is reduced by directly adding water to the original wine (people who drink water are lucky-many of them are doped with worse things; The Food Hygiene Law will be on the road for a long time)

As we all know, burning the inside of an old wooden barrel can eliminate the smell of the previous contents. But the regulations of bourbon require that new barrels must be used, and the barrels must be baked first. Caudry is not sure who made the rules. The practice of burning and carbonizing old barrels before they were used in whisky was quite common at that time, and everyone was very aware of its benefits, so that new barrels dedicated to whisky were also included in the routine burning and carbonizing procedures. He wrote that there is no major innovation in this practice in historical materials, which shows that this is a habit that has gradually formed.

The gradually formed habit was formalized in the 1840s. According to American law, bourbon must be aged in newly baked oak barrels for a period of time. Britain followed closely, and the legislation stipulated what standards the goods named after scotch whisky must meet, but did not restrict the use of new barrels. (Single malt whisky makers often use empty barrels of other spirits, such as sherry and bourbon, to age old whisky, and sometimes they use finish to bring exotic flavor to whisky, such as barrels filled with madeira or rum before-and finally you will taste all kinds of flavors in the glass. )

The role of the barrel has gradually changed, from the initial simple carrier to a part of the contents. In addition to being simply used as a container for transporting beer, wine and spirits, wooden barrels have also become an indispensable part of the wine-making process. Some characteristics of wood can make the ordinary, green and low-alcohol grape juice in the barrel slowly evolve over time and become fragrant and mellow wine-it can also turn moonlight wine into bourbon and sublimate white agave into aged agave.

It was not until the last thirty years that researchers began to study how ordinary wooden barrels could improve the quality of wine. People changed the characteristics of wood in the process of barrel making. The components of the barrel are dissolved in the liquid stored in the barrel. After years of accumulation, wooden barrels have given liquor stored in them a brand-new flavor.

29 1月

Cartier for girls? This Cartier is specially designed for men.

Cartier, including blue balloons, tanks, Sanders, keys, cheetahs, bathtubs and other series, is either a special female watch or a female watch. The larger size is the men’s watch; The smaller size is a women’s watch. In Cartier, there are only a few series, which have been designed for men since their birth. Such as Caleb, Drive and Pasha.

Cartier pasha chronograph

Caleb has stopped production, and DRIVE is no longer the main series. I got Cartier’s new generation Pasha chronograph before. Let’s take a look today. This is the main model of Cartier men’s watch.

From left to right, callipo diving watch, drive and pasha time.

Cartier pasha chronograph

Pasha is one of the oldest watches in Cartier, but the antique watch has been lost.

Cartier Pasha was first introduced in 1932.

Pasha was a senior official in the administrative system of the Ottoman Empire, usually a governor or general. Why is Cartier’s watch called this name? According to textual research, this is because the Pasha watch in 1932 was made for Tamil Glavey (1879-1956) in Marrakech, Morocco. This militarily armed brother was one of the richest men in the world at that time. I also read some introductions, including how to start a business. There are 150 women in the harem, all of whom have historical records. This brother wants a waterproof watch that he can wear when taking a bath or swimming. This is Cartier Pasha in 1932. Unfortunately, this antique watch is lost.

The historical prototype of Pasha in 1932 was made for this brother.

Cartier Modern Pasha was launched in 1985. Because the antique watch in 1932 was lost, Cartier asked Master Gero Zunda (designer of Audemars Piguet Royal Oak and Patek Philippe Nautilus) to redesign it according to some design records, such as a round watch with a square track scale on the dial and a small chain protective cap on the crown. The final product is what we see today.

Gero Zunda, a famous watch designer, has passed away. The picture shows a photo of him when he was young.

The 1985 Pasha designed by Jerozunda.

Pasha is the sports style of Cartier.

Cartier Pasha is one of the earliest waterproof watches in the world (note that it is waterproof, not diving). Rolex introduced waterproof oyster watches in 1926, followed by Cartier Pasha in 1932. Pasha is born with athletic attributes. Cartier’s new generation Pasha will be launched in 2020. This chronograph watch has a fine steel case, with a size of 41mm and a thickness of 11.97mm.. For an automatic chronograph, the size is moderate, not too thick. Different from the conventional big three-needle, the chronograph has a unidirectional rotating bezel, which is completely polished and has numbers and scales similar to diving watches, so as to highlight Pasha’s “waterproof watch origin”. Outside the bezel, the side of the case is all brushed to enhance the sense of movement of the watch (waterproof for 100 meters).

Pasha is Cartier’s middle sports style.

Cartier Pasha, the most unique place is the crown. Pasha has a “little hat” which is fastened to the crown with a chain. Unscrew this “small cap” and it is the crown that is really used to wind and adjust the watch. The “small cap” is used to protect the crown and enhance water resistance. In contrast, the real crown is very small, but don’t look at it, it works normally and there is nothing wrong with it. The blue spinel on the crown and timing button is the main symbol of Cartier. The exquisiteness of blue spinel is in sharp contrast with Pasha’s sporty appearance, which makes this watch both sporty and luxurious, which is Cartier’s strength.

The state of being covered.

Unscrew the crown cover to show the crown status.

In the round dial, there is a square scale, which is another major feature of Cartier Pasha. On this timepiece, the lines extending from the square scale are connected with the luminous time scale on the dial. Cartier has always attached great importance to dial decoration. Pasha spread the lasso line from the center of the dial to all sides, divided by square scales, and the lasso line covered the whole dial. Three small dials are decorated with records (3: 30, 9: 12 and 6: 00). All the hands of the watch are baked blue, and the whole dial is full of artistic sense under complex decoration.

In the center of Pasha’s dial, there is a square engraved line.

In the center of the dial, twisted lines are scattered around.

A small dial with recording lines.

Cartier Pasha, another important appearance detail is the watch ear. Pasha uses “stick ears”. At the joint between the meter head and the bracelet, a metal bar passes through. The left and right ends of the ear are shaped like pyramids. The H-shaped links of the bracelet are brushed and the middle links are polished. Watch chain, one-button quick release, press the button behind the watch ear, the watch chain will be removed, and the metal chain and belt can be easily switched. Meanwhile, the length of the metal bracelet can be adjusted without tools. As long as you press the hidden button on the watch chain, you can remove a watch chain, and it is easy to add and cut watch chain segments yourself. These technical details that are convenient for players are well done by Cartier.

Cartier pasha, earrings and bracelets.

Pasha chronograph adopts Cartier’s self-made 1904CH MC automatic chronograph movement. 1904CH MC chronograph movement is a cylindrical wheel and vertical clutch chronograph movement. The oscillation frequency is 28,800 times/hour and the power is 48 hours. The automatic movement and the upper splint are decorated with Geneva stripes, and the lower splint is decorated with fish scales. This movement, in addition to Cartier, is also provided for the same group of Earls (that is, the 1160P chronograph movement used by Count POLO). From the technical source, Cartier 1904CH MC automatic chronograph, Jaeger-LeCoultre 751 automatic chronograph movement and Blancpain 1185 automatic movement all have certain kinship.

Cartier Pasha chronograph adopts 1904CH MC automatic chronograph movement.

Cartier Pasha chronograph, steel shell model, public price 76000. The popular price of 76,000 yuan is quite moderate in the fine steel case chronograph of mainstream watches on the market.

Cartier Pasha chronograph, gray disc version.

Pasha chronograph is one of the most sporty watches sold by Cartier, which combines sportiness with elegance and luxury. Compared with Cartier’s blue balloon, Sandoz, tank and other brands, Pasha chronograph is not easy to hit the watch. Its unique shape, even if it is slightly exposed from the cuff, the crown and the three blue spinels on the chronograph button can make this watch stand out.

29 1月

What harm does toothpaste have to blackheads? Disadvantages of removing blackheads with toothpaste

Strawberries are lovely and delicious, and strawberry nose is the last thing I want in my life. Blackheads are actually stubborn and need special cleaning products to clean them, but toothpaste can also be cleaned, but it is not as good as ordinary cleaning products.

What are the disadvantages of toothpaste for blackheads?
It is very irritating to the skin.

Toothpaste used to remove blackheads contains fluoride, which is very irritating to the skin. Even if we choose toothpaste containing herbal essence, it will also cause irritation to the skin. Therefore, when adapting to toothpaste to remove blackheads, it should be smaller and rinsed clean.

May cause skin sensitivity.

When using toothpaste to remove blackheads, it may cause skin sensitivity, mainly because toothpaste is too irritating. Once the skin can’t stand this kind of stimulation, it will easily become sensitive. You can try it on your hand before using toothpaste to remove blackheads. Wait a few minutes after applying toothpaste to see if you are allergic.

The effect of removing blackheads is limited.

Toothpaste can help to get rid of blackheads, but the effect of getting rid of blackheads can’t last long. It may come out after 1~2 hours of darkness. Because toothpaste can only quickly remove blackheads on the surface, deep blackheads need to clean pores more thoroughly, which toothpaste can’t do.

The skin will become dry.

Toothpaste can diminish inflammation and sterilize, and can eliminate inflammation caused by blackheads on the skin. It should be noted that due to the stimulation of fluoride in toothpaste, the skin will become dehydrated after use, and the cuticle of the skin will dry off, which is more likely to block pores and produce more blackheads.

Toothpaste without blackheads is not suitable for everyone.

If there is a wound, acne or inflammation in the part where blackheads need to be removed, it is not advisable to remove blackheads with toothpaste to avoid skin infection. In addition, if your skin belongs to sensitive muscles, don’t use toothpaste to remove blackheads to avoid skin allergies.

What are the ingredients of toothpaste?

Toothpaste consists of a variety of inorganic and organic substances, including abrasives, washing foaming agents, adhesives, humectants, sweeteners, fragrances and so on. Among them, the friction agent is the main component of toothpaste. In recent years, some Chinese herbal medicines have been added to toothpaste to make toothpaste containing various drugs. But don’t worry, all the ingredients are safe.

Pay attention after use

  1. After applying toothpaste, try to keep your nose moist. Don’t wait until the toothpaste is dry before cleaning, and you can’t clean it the next day, because the toothpaste contains oxides, which is very irritating and easy to damage the skin after a long time.

2, this method can not be used every day, once a week is enough, after all, after a blackhead removal, the cuticle of the skin will become fragile, and it will take some time to recover.

3, girls with allergic skin are not suitable for this method to remove blackheads, acne, acne is the same, easy to cause skin infections.

  1. After removing blackheads, be sure to apply astringent water or toner to moisturize them to prevent blackheads from recurring.
29 1月

What does Swarovski’s Eye of the Devil mean? The meaning of the Turkish devil’s eye

Swarovski magic eye is exquisitely made and diamonds are exquisitely inlaid, which is especially liked by his girlfriend. So what does Swarovski’s evil eye mean? What is the moral of the Turkish Devil’s Eye?

What is the moral of the devil’s eye?
The eye of the devil is also called the eye of Turkey, which means to protect and stop bad things. Miranda kerr was originally designed to bring good luck to the people she loved. This Duo Evil Eye pendant with various coatings, created by miranda kerr and Swarovski, can add mysterious embellishment to the dress. The two eye of the devil ornaments of the pendant are made of blue, black, transparent imitation crystal and rose-plated gold metal, respectively, with a rose-plated gold chain decorated with dark blue imitation crystal. Super beautiful crystal pendant, round sister paper and a crystal dream!

The eye of the Turkish devil
There is a legend that a long time ago, in a small village by the sea, a huge stone stood by the sea for many years, and one hundred people could not move it or break it. One day, a man thought to be carrying an evil soul passed by the village. When he saw the stone, the man was surprised and said, “God, what a big stone!” ” “Who knows the words sound just fell, accompanied by a huge roar, this magical stone cracked, and then split in two. People think that the power of evil spirits counteracts the huge stone, and the function of this stone is completed, which may also be the origin of Nazar Bunkuk.

Devil’s Eye, also called EvilEye and BlueEye, is a traditional exorcism ceremony in Turkey and a souvenir with local characteristics. Magic eye is a glass product, a light blue or dark blue round glass sheet with a little white in the middle and a little black on it. Of course, there are many changes, such as embedding in shells of different shapes or making them in the shape of water droplets or love. Fishing ornaments, wind chimes, bracelets and necklaces are all very common devil’s eye shapes.

The eye of the devil is also the most evil thing. This is a kind of witchcraft that originated from Gypsies in the Middle East. Hanging a demon’s eye at home or on your body can suck away the evil spirits and jealousy of outsiders. However, after the evil spirit of the devil’s eye has accumulated to a certain amount over a period of time, it must be sent away, but it is a way of transfer and donation and cannot be thrown away directly.

NAZAR Boncuk, which is called “Turkish blue eyes” by many people, is a widely circulated culture in Turkey. The word Nazareth is often used to describe inexplicable disasters in daily life. If a normal person suddenly goes blind, or a woman gives birth to a healthy baby and then dies inexplicably, people will say that this is the power of evil eyes. This small stone is considered as an object to resist evil spirits, and people call it NAZAR BONCUK, which is why newborn babies in Turkey are put on small bracelets or brooches as soon as they land.

In Turkey, no matter in residents’ homes, shops, taxis and airplane cabins, people can see a beautiful “gadget”: a smaller light blue glass is set in a larger blue glass, and a small black glass block in the shape of a “black eyeball” is embedded in the light blue glass. This is what the Turks call the devil’s eye, and China calls it the “blue eye”. People like “blue eyes” and think it can ward off evil spirits.

Demon’s eye evaluation
The quality is also good, and it is still intact after one year. There are four buttonholes at the back to adjust the length. It’s also nice to have bracelets in the same paragraph. Full marks for small details? ? It looks good together! Jewelry is mainly taken care of. Take it off when taking a bath, exercising or sleeping, and spray perfume to avoid it, which will increase the service life. This is a gift for myself on Valentine’s Day, hahahahaha, I just received the goods these days. Let’s start with the discount, 555 RMB, which is still very cost-effective

I like miranda kerr very much, so when I saw this necklace, I felt very different and had a sense of design. I took a fancy to it at first sight! I believe many people prefer this one, because they think it has a good moral, keeping bad luck out and leaving good luck to themselves and their relatives. I especially like wearing necklaces in spring and summer. The decoration looks much more exquisite.

29 1月

Dior 999 Matte and Moisturizing: What’s the difference between color testing and contrast?

In this emotional age, no one cares whether you are happy today, or whether you ate enough yesterday … no one cares whether the lipstick you bought is enough … and I care about you the most. In order to continue our most “pure” friendship, I plant a grass for you every day. No matter how many interpretations of the color of lipstick, there is only one protagonist who stands firm, and that is Zhen Hong! “I will never die, and you will always be concubines.”

How to distinguish between matte and moisturizing Dior 999?
As can be seen from the comparison chart above, one has matte letters and the other does not. The left side of this picture is matte and the right side is wet.

Comparison of Dior 999 color test

Is enchanting bitch tens of millions, the Lord of the harem can only have one; There are thousands of colors of lipstick, but only one is pure red. And the world’s most red lipstick, only one officially recognized. That’s DIOR999〜

An indispensable official queen on the lipstick rack is known as the most correct red lipstick, and almost all her friends have one ~ probably the first red lipstick for all the girls in into the pit.

Not only the color is positive, the texture is smooth, but also the upper chromaticity and durability are surprisingly amazing, completely ignoring skin color and age. The atmosphere is heavy, showing temperament; A thin layer is refreshing and can add color. 999 is divided into two models, one is the classic glossy version and the other is the matte version.

Bright side of 999#:

It’s really colored, orange-red, moist and not greasy, so don’t worry about peeling! Don’t worry about lip lines! Color rendering and durability are good ~ Compared with the original lip color, red lips will really add a lot of points.

Bo Tu’s influence is still gentle. Personally, I prefer thick coating, and true red is more vivid. Bright surface has high luminosity, clear and bright light, and moist texture is not worse than lip glaze.

The bright face is bright and graceful, which adds a sense of movement to the charm. This is the color of incandescent lamp, a little orange, but it doesn’t affect its aesthetic feeling at all. Brilliant but not vulgar, charming but not charming is probably the best interpretation of the classic 999.

999# matte:

999# matte is not as moist as the classic version, but it won’t dry at all. The color is darker than the bright color! Although it’s matte, it won’t dry at all, and it won’t lick lip lines with a grin ~ but its durability is better than that of strong light! Compared with other brands of matte lipstick, it is moist, full of gas field, and Bo Tu is full of vitality!

The matte version is a little more orange than the bright version, but it is because of a little more orange that this color number is on fire! After all, big red, which is safe for both yellow skin and white skin, is rare and not picky at all!

The color under the incandescent lamp is slightly orange. The misty face is deep and charming, adding tolerance to the low-key luxury, showing the respect of the king and the eternal fashion master.

If you want to buy a big red that instantly hold the audience, it must be Dior999. That sentence “I will not die, you will always be a concubine!” ” It’s too sweet for me, so I’ll push it hard even if Po is rotten ~ ~ ~

Different skin colors will have different effects, so I will give you three skin colors, white, yellow and black, for your comparison. The warm color is red, very white, with different texture and different makeup effects. You can choose the classic model if you like good gloss, and the matte version if you like matte.

Use sensory contrast

Classic version (bought 2 years ago, I don’t know whether it has been revised): the package is dark blue, the top CD has silver edge, and the cover is the same color inside and outside.

Matte version: the package is almost black, and the inside of the cover is red, which is super fashionable and just what I want.


Classic version: silky, moist and shiny, sweating according to temperature changes.

Matte version: silky, matte, matte, velvet texture, so far no “sweating” phenomenon has been found.


Classic edition: water red, warm color, tomato color

Matte version: red, warm, tomato color


Classic edition: very nourishing

Matte version: Although it is not as moist as the classic version, it will not dry at all.

Generally speaking, the colors of the two 999s are similar, warm red is very white, but the texture is different and the makeup effect is different. You can choose the classic model if you like good gloss, and the matte version if you like matte. It is worth mentioning that the matte version is not cool, very comfortable and well received.

/Country of origin/France

/Shelf life/production date is shown in the outer packaging, and the shelf life is 3 years.

/Precautions/It is easy to sweat and melt at high temperature, so it is better to put it in the refrigerator after freezing. Due to factors such as lighting and lip color, there will be slight deviation in color measurement.